Who are the Rohingya?

Learn general facts about the Rohingya.
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The Rohingya are a Muslim minority group from Burma, which Burma's government insists are from Bangladesh and has refused to recognize as citizens.
The Rohingya are a Muslim minority group from Burma, which Burma's government insists are from Bangladesh and has refused to recognize as citizens.
Photo: RFA


The Rohingya are Muslims native to the northern Arakan region of Burma, which borders Bangladesh. The name Rohingya is taken from "Rohang" or "Rohan," which was the name used for the Arakan region during the 9th and 10th centuries. According to Rohingya history, the group is descended from 7th century Arab, Mughal, and Bengali merchants who settled in Arakan territory. The Rohingya live alongside the Rakhine, a people descended from Hindus and Mongols who make up the ethnic majority in the region.


The Rohingya language is known as Rohingyalish and is linguistically similar to the Chittagonian language spoken in the southernmost area of Bangladesh bordering Burma. While the language has been successfully written in scripts including Arabic, Hanafi, Urdu, and Burmese, the modern adaptation uses a script based on the 26 letters of the Roman alphabet with two additional Latin letters.

Recent history:

Graphic: RFA Graphic: RFA
The Rohingya were promised a separate Muslim state when the British reclaimed Burma from Japanese occupation during World War II as a reward for their loyalty. But instead, only those Rohingya that had collaborated with the British were appointed to official posts within the British-controlled colony.

By 1947, the group had formed an army and had approached President Jinnah of newly-formed Pakistan to incorporate northern Arakan into a part of the country that would later form Bangladesh. Experts believe that it was this action that led to eventual problems between the Rohingya and the Burmese government, who saw the group as untrustworthy.

When Burma declared independence in 1948, most Rohingya officials were replaced with Buddhist Arakanis who began to institute policies that many of the Muslim group considered unfair. Since that time, ethnic tensions have divided the two peoples.

Political status:

Prior to 1962 the Rohingya community was recognized as an indigenous ethnic nationality of Burma, with members of the group serving as representatives in the Burmese parliament, as well as ministers, parliamentary secretaries, and other high-ranking government positions. But since Burma’s military junta took control of the country in 1962, the Rohingya have been systematically deprived of their political rights.

The Rohingya were declared “non-nationals” and “foreign residents,” according to a citizenship law established by the regime in 1982, and were denied the right to participate in multiparty elections held in 1990.

The Rohingya have been subjected to large-scale ethnic cleansing following the formation of an independent Burma. Since 1948, nearly 1.5 million Rohingya have been forced to leave their homeland to avoid this persecution. Many members of the group have fled to Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia, but others communities can be found in the U.A.E., Thailand, and Malaysia.

Approximately 800,000 Rohingya still live inside Burma, while an estimated 600,000 live in Bangladesh, 250,000 live in Pakistan, and 300,000 live in Saudi Arabia. Around 100,000 other Rohingya make up parts of the population of the U.A.E., Thailand, and Malaysia.

Communal violence between Rohingya and ethnic Buddhists in Burma’s Arakan state, also called Rakhine, in 2012 left more than 200 dead and tens of thousands homeless, with the Rohingya bearing the brunt of the violence. Deadly clashes erupted again two years later, prompting calls by rights groups and the United Nations for investigations into the unrest.

Helped by human traffickers, hundreds of Rohingya meanwhile began to flee Burma by boat for Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia, leading to a surge of illegal migration by Rohingya and Bangladeshis in May 2015 that saw countries in the region turning vessels filled with hundreds if not thousands of sick and hungry passengers back at sea.

Comments (12)
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from San Francisco

No Rohingya in Burma

Aug 29, 2016 06:59 AM

Md shofique

from Coxsbazar

The rohingyas are indegenous ethnic group of Arakan now called rakhain. As, in one time there was no any human living system in Arakan. Arakan was fill full of huge forest and wild animals. Beside this in neighbouring country india (Hindostan) there was various kind of ethnic group. And racial discrimination was habitual. So to escape self life two ethnic group "Rohulia and Mongolia" had fled to arakan and they started to cut forest and living. Finally the rohulia become rohingya. If you try to study the history of ariving peoples to arakan firstly then you will be clear.

Nov 14, 2014 12:51 PM


from Portland

Burmese people must be aware that they are being brainwatch by Ne Win who changed all facts in history.

Feb 11, 2014 03:20 AM

Zaw Myo Aung Thaw

Dear RFA,
Your origin statement is totally false. We do not have so-called Rohingya evidently in Bangladesh and Burma. My answer is here Who are the Rohingya? They are all Chittagongian Bengali Muslims. RFA! YOU SHOULD NOT CREATE THE PROBLEM IN BURMA.

Oct 21, 2013 03:14 PM


strongly chastisement to those who argue illogically n without proper knowledge n i abominate to those who assert to deny the existence of Rohingya n urge to them who are the blind patriots of darkened buddhism of Myanmarese to peruse the site hereby i attached, shwelumaung org . He is one of the prominent intellectuals of Rakhine national but he deserved to be admired by his revelation truths which were hidden by the world worst dictator general Ne Win. if anybody of this earth planet has ability to challenge to the existence of Rohingya ,warmly invited to them to meet with the most honorable person, The Glorious Quran translator sir, ko Htay Lwin Oo.Rohingya is the oldest native of Arakan in the northern part of Arakan n the oldest native in sourth is arakanese co called rakhine today n the rakhine name is changed from arakan politically with any referendum.

[This comment has been edited by RFA Editorial staff per our Terms of Use]

Jan 22, 2013 02:02 PM

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