流亡诗集(序言)

编辑委员会 策划与发行 傅希秋,美国对华援助会会长、美国约翰李兰德宗教自由奖 (ERLC’s Religious Liberty Award) 得主 主编 蒋品超,美国2006年2月16日《全球网络自由法案》(Global Online Freedom Act)当事人,《六四诗集》、《维权诗集》主编 编委 周锋锁,六四学生领袖、美国民主教育基金会现任会长 凌沧洲,原《中国青年》杂志社会版主编 丁志国,六四学生领袖、电子工程师 杜导斌,第十八届美国民主教育基金会“杰出民主人士奖”得主 万铨,美国加州大学教育学博士候选人 张耀杰,中国艺术研究院研究员
2009-11-10
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余英时,台湾中央研究院院士、美国普林斯顿大学教授、美国国会图书馆克鲁格人文与社会科学终身成就奖 (Kluge Prize rewards lifetime achievement) 得主

司徒华,香港市民支援爱国民主运动联合会主席、香港前立法会议员

金钟,香港《开放》杂志主编

何俊仁,香港立法会议员、香港民主党主席

Morton Sklar,世界反酷刑人权组织执行主任,师涛王小宁起诉雅虎人权案原告律师

黄翔,中国建制后早期民主诗人之一,美国匹兹堡受难城驻市作家,两度获美国赫尔曼哈默特言论自由作家奖

杨炼,中国新诗“朦胧诗派”的代表人物之一,欧洲“尤利西斯奖”评委,国际笔会理事

陈奎德,普林斯顿中国学社执行主席、《纵览中国》网站主编

曾建元,台湾中华大学行政管理学系副教授、台湾教授协会法政组召集人

胡佳,中国二十一世纪维权运动代表人物之一、法国无国界记者组织首次“中国奖”得主

郭飞雄,中国二十一世纪维权运动代表人物之一,广东太石村选举事件中表现杰出

蒋亨兰,美国民主教育基金会前会长

胡志伟,香港笔会前会长、香港政府文学委员会前主席、艺术发展局委员



编者的话

在中国共產党取得政权后,中国发生了两次延续至今的大规模逃亡。

一是1959年3月在种族冲突中遭到武力镇压的藏人在达赖喇嘛带领下大规模流亡印度,并在达兰萨拉成立流亡政府,及至去年3月中国政府再次在西藏进行武装镇压。二是1989年「六四事件」前后,在反思和反抗中国专制政治体制的思潮中,遭受中国政府迫害与镇压的知识份子、学生,或纷纷逃往西方各国至今归乡无期;或虽身陷中国,心志与体魄在那片国土上却仍然漂泊无依。

为此,我们在编辑出版《六四诗集》、《维权诗集》后编辑出版了这一集《流亡诗集》。

《流亡诗集》的编辑出版,意在让世人了解中国现行体制下造成的不幸,牢记由于中国专制政体所致,在中华人民共和国历史发展的进程中曾发生过令人悲痛窒息的大逃亡,让人们更加紧迫的推动对中国现行专制体制的改革。

《流亡诗集》在编辑过程中遭受重重阻扰。其中最困难的一次是,《流亡诗集》起初挑选在二○○九年十月一日中华人民共和国60周年国庆节前夕发行,让人们在歌舞升平欢度中国国庆的时候想到为中国付出青春、热血乃至生命的人们却被迫流亡四方有家难归的可悲现实,而在印刷的最关键时刻出版方竟遭受来自中国方面的压力不得不终止与我们的合作,以致《流亡诗集》不得不延后出版。为此,我们谨向关心支持我们的人们深表歉意,同时对中国政府对《流亡诗集》的打压与干预表达我们深沉的悲哀与愤怒。

由于种种原因《流亡诗集》的编辑存在着许多不完善,譬如还有许多优秀的作者与诗作没能入选,有些作者已入选作品而我们一时尚无法联络,等等,为此,我们希望在未来条件许可的情况下能让它更加完备。

《流亡诗集》编辑委员会       
2009年10月15日         



序一:克服压迫人的障礙,改善世界

By Teri Shaffer Yamada
Professor, Asian and Asian American Studies
California State University, Long Beach

中国诗歌以它丰韵的抒情意象与音乐特色,有着改变人心的力量。在中国绵长璀璨的历史上,有许多社会评论诗人,比如孔子(约西元前551-479年),选择使用文字的力量,而不是暴力的手段,作为他们改变时政改善社会的方式。也因如此,在中国悠久的文学史上,诗人们向权势谏言激愤陈情的例子历历可见。

一如过去,现代中国政治的内在循环特质依然是先鼓励继而压抑文学创作的自由。与五四新文学运动相关的改革作家,试图提高妇女及社会下层阶级人们的地位,同时也试图推动立意完善的现代化政策,来重振疲弱且被外国势力侵占的中国。五四作家追寻创作自由的梦想,却因毛泽东对文艺创作的指导纲领而被改造,而使文艺发表只能用于提倡社会的思想进步。虽然毛在1942年发表的“在延安文艺座谈会上的讲话”提倡史诗浪漫主义体裁的新式诗歌,但也同时为日后对文人,作家及知识份子的大规模镇压埋下了伏笔,此即为“百花齐放”运动(1956-57)的讽刺结局。

在毛泽东之死为悲惨的文化大革命收场后,1980年代同样模式又一次在中国上演。当局再次鼓励作家,知识份子自由创作,甚至要他们批评政府在文革期间的所作所为。这次开放也同样孕育出许多新的文学派,除1950年代以来受到审查的“回归诗人”和“右派作家”外,其中一群新生代诗人也在此一时期崭露头角。他们以“白洋淀诗派”为基础,在自由诗体的格式中实验如何使用象征,隐喻,一语多义和丰富意象等表现手法。他们的实验结果是让“蒙胧诗歌”改变了中国诗坛。而这一政治怂恿下的自由抒写无意中催生了席卷整个中国的自由化思潮,此一思潮以中国政府在天安门广场对示威学生和支持者(1989年6月4日)发动镇压时达到最高潮,而学生和他们的支持者集会原是要哀悼中国死去的反腐败官员-胡耀邦。在这次镇压及其秋后清算行动中,许多持不同意见的作家,诗人及知识份子都秘密逃离中国,因为他们如果被捕,最轻的发落也是下劳改营。1980年代末期及其后十年内,“新世代或第三代诗群”以许多不同形式及流派纷纷崛起。第三代诗人的诗内容稍显愤世嫉俗,他们以专注日常生活和口头用语的方式反英雄,反理想。第三代诗人常因为导致中国语言的“欧化”而遭受批评。

诗人蒋品超主编的“流亡诗集”请得达赖喇嘛为封面题字,收录五十八位现代中国和西藏诗人的作品。他们之中许多人的作品是在流亡异乡的过程中完成的,他们提倡创作的自由,诗多以中国解放西藏(1952年)或天安门事件(1989年6月4日)所造成的悲惨政局为背景述写被迫逃离家园。他们中多数人流亡到世界各大都市,写着在那里的爱情,渴望以及所住城市和所处环境的风土人情,即使他们在异地兴旺发达,文字也常带有思乡的悲鸣。

诗集五十八位诗人当中,有十多位藏族诗人,如布琼索南,于流亡印度期间以中文或英文作诗,如女诗人唯色,她的诗反映出作者人在北京心则流亡于外。还有获得许多文学奖项的丹真宗智,现居孟买,被视为西藏流亡人士中最具代表性的声音。

1989年6月4日天安门事件使各世代的诗人都被迫流亡。诗人哈金(1956年生)与家人看见电视报导中国军队镇压天安门广场示威群众后决定留在美国。因经济上的需要,他成了一位优秀的英文作家。他的小说和短篇故事获得了无数文学奖。而“朦胧诗派”运动的文学领袖北岛(赵振开,1949年生),1989年因被控煽动天安门广场学生反叛被迫流亡,直到1994年仍被中国政府拒绝回国。

与哈金与北岛一样,诗人多多(1951年生)也属于朦胧诗派实验诗群。他近来的作品已向抒情长句演变,形式趋向散文化。多多这样的演变发生于天安门事件后,那时他曾流亡伦敦,加拿大,荷兰。在这期间,流亡与失根的主题渗入他的作品。多多在2004年获得许可回到中国,现于海南大学任教。杨炼(1955年生)是另一位与朦胧诗派和《今天》杂志有关的地下诗人。1980年代,杨因其批判当时社会现状的实验诗而引起中国国内及国际的注意。1989年6月4日,他人在纽西兰,不久他的作品被列入黑名单,其中国公民权也被当局剥夺。

另一位优秀诗人黄翔(1941年生),曾参与1970年代后期开始的地下作家运动。他坐过多次牢,多因参与人权活动被捕入狱。1970年代中,当局禁止黄翔写作,他只好把所作的诗歌背下来。1978年,黄以将诗作写成大字海报并在北京张贴的形式开始加入民主墙运动。这一期间,黄发起“新现代诗人运动,同时出版地下文学刊物《启蒙》为朦胧派诗人铺路。在被捕三次后,黄在1996年逃离中国,那时当局因他的文学工作而将他打为”反革命头子。“他的诗因抒情特质闻名,其主题常环绕大自然之美,又常引用中国古诗典故。美国评论文学家常说他是中国的沃尔特•惠特曼。黄翔的诗多数已翻译成英文,他现居纽约,仍盼能“在天空写诗,使大家都能看到”。

此诗集收录了大量年轻诗人的作品。他们因参与民主运动及1989年学生示威活动而流亡。如王丹,他是因1989年学生运动而出名的学生领袖,他在北京大学组织“民主沙龙” 。在军队镇压学生示威活动之后,王丹名列通缉名单之一,随即开始其逃亡生涯。1991年王丹被当局发现而逮捕。1993年被假释,1996年再次被捕,并被判刑十一年。因健康情况欠佳,当局在1998年允许他赴美就医。2008年,他在哈佛大学取得博士学位,至今仍被当局禁止返国。王丹的实验诗表现出流亡的悲伤以及与对中国人权的哀痛。

廖亦武是受天安门事件影响较深的诗人之一,因其诗批评社会而于1990年被捕,判刑四年。廖获释后,落魄潦倒,开始在国土之上的流亡生涯。廖将流亡之际所做的街头采访集结成书,在中国地下深受欢迎。蒋品超自称“沉重的浪漫主义诗人,他在监狱的经历深刻地影响其具有政治理念的诗歌,许多诗作注重写实,不求象征。

此诗集也收录几位来自上海的诗人作品,他们的作品反映出他们对故乡的思念。上海诗人之一李笠,现居瑞典,时常出版其实验诗作。杨小滨幸免流亡,以英文与中文从事写作工作。他既是诗人又是文学理论家,对中国后现代及前卫学派有很大的贡献。他的诗反映流浪生活,其文化认同是由地点与环境塑造而成。

本诗集的所有诗人,都让我们看出人心灵的适应力,以及他们面临审查和暴力压制时为保有其艺术创作而产生的勇气。他们证明了创造性的表达有能力克服最压迫人的障碍,也让我们看见他们要改善世界的坚定决心。我们因他们的存在与诗歌受到心灵的恩泽。



Teresa Zimmerman-Liu、杨凡仪 译



序一英文原文:

Overcoming Crushing Obstacles, Making the World a Better Place

By Teri Shaffer Yamada
Professor, Asian and Asian American Studies
California State University, Long Beach

Chinese poetry, with its gift of lyrical imagery and musicality, has the power to change minds. China has a long and distinguished history of socially critical poets, including famous men like Confucius (c. 551-479 bce), who preferred to use the force of language, rather than violence, to change politics and better social conditions for those around him. Thus China’s long literary landscape is strewn with stories recounting the State’s abreaction to poets and writers who speak truth to power.

In modern times as in the past, a cyclical pattern of political consequence has conspired to first encourage then repress freedom of creative expression. Reformist writers associated with the May 4th (1919) New Literature Movement attempted both to raise the status of women and the lower classes while advancing a thoughtful modernization agenda for a dispirited and fragile China whose borders had been penetrated by foreign powers. These dreams of creative expression were subsequently reshaped by Mao Zedong’s didactic realignment of artistic and literary production to be used solely for the sake of society’s ideological improvement. His 1942 “Talks at the Yenan Forum on Literature and Art,” while fostering new poetic forms in the style of heroic romanticism, set the stage later for a massive repression of literary authors and intellectuals, an ironic result of the Hundred Flowers campaign (1956-57).

A similar pattern emerged in the 1980s after the death of Mao Zedong put an end to the tragic Cultural Revolution. Once again, writers and intellectuals were encouraged to write freely, even to criticize the government’s actions during the Cultural Revolution. This refreshing openness spawned a series of new literary schools, including the “returning poets” and “rightists” who had been censored since the mid 1950s. A younger generation of poets also emerged at this time, with roots in the “Baiyang Shallow Lake Poets Group” that experimented with symbolism, ambiguity, polysemy and imagery in freestyle form. Their experimentation in “obscure poetry” transformed China’s literary scene. At the same time, this freedom of expression inadvertently fostered a pro-democracy movement throughout China, culminating in a government crackdown of student protesters in Tiananmen Square (June 4, 1989) and their supporters who had gathered there to mourn the death of Hu Yaobang, an anti-corruption official. Many dissident writers, poets, and intellectuals secretly fled mainland China during the subsequent purge, fearing at best forced labor in work camps were they to be arrested. From the late 1980s through the next decade, “new generation or third generation poetry”, emerged in various forms in a number of different groups. Their poetry incorporated somewhat cynical anti-heroic and anti-idealistic themes, a focus on daily life and the spoken word. They are often criticized for contributing to the “Europeanization” of the Chinese language.

Poet Jiang Pinchao’s anthology Poems from Exile, whose cover is graced by the calligraphy of the Dalai Lama, represents the work of fifty-eight modern Chinese and Tibetan poets. Many of them write in exile from their homeland, some forced to flee from political circumstances associated with the annexation of Tibet (1952) or the Tiananmen Square incident (June 4, 1989). Advocates for the freedom of creative imagination, most of these poets remain exiled in urban sites around the world where they write of love and longing and of the cities and circumstances in which they now endure and even thrive, albeit with a resonance of nostalgia and sometimes sorrow.

Among fifty-eight poets represented in this anthology are over ten Tibetans, like Bhuchung D Sonam, who write in Chinese or English from exile in India, or in the case of female poet Tsering Woeser, from house arrest in Beijing.  Tenzin Tsundae, recipient of many literary awards and currently based in Mumbai, is considered by many as the leading voice of the Tibetan exile community. 
 
Poets of all generations were forced into exile by the Tiananmen Square incident (4 June 1989). Poet Ha Jin (b. 1956) decided to remain in the United States with his family after watching the televised coverage of the military crackdown on protestors in Tiananmen Square. He became a remarkable writer in English out of economic necessity, subsequently winning numerous literary awards for his novels and short fiction. In contrast, Bei Dao (Zhao Zhenkai, b. 1949), literary leader of the “Misty School” movement, was forced into exile in 1989, accused of inciting the student revolt in Tiananmen Square.  He was denied the right to return in 1994.

Like Ha Jin and Bei Dao, poet Duo Duo (b. 1951) also belongs to the Misty or Obscure School of experimental poetry. His later work has evolved into longer lyrical lines verging on prose.  This transformation took place during his exile in London, Canada and the Netherlands after the Tiananmen Square incident, when themes of exile and rootlessness crept into his work. Duo Duo was able to return to China in 2004, where he now teaches at Hainan University. Yang Lian (b. 1955), an underground poet associated with the Misty Poets and the literary magazine “Jintian” (Today), gained local and international recognition for his experimental poems with socially critical nuance during the 1980s. He was in New Zealand on 4 June 1989; his work was blacklisted shortly thereafter, and his Chinese citizenship revoked.

Another remarkable poet, Huang Xiang (b. 1941) was part of the underground writers’ movement which started in the late 1970s. He was imprisoned multiple times due largely to his human rights activities. Huang was banned from writing through the 1970s and responding by committing his poems to memory. In 1978, he initiated the Democracy Wall movement by posting his poems in huge characters on a wall in Beijing. It was during this period that he started the “New Modern Poets Movement,” which published the underground literary magazine “Enlightenment”, thus paving the way for the Misty Poets. After three more arrests, Huang fled in 1996 having been named the leader of a “counterrevolutionary clique” because of his literary pursuits.  Known for the lyrical quality of his poetry, with its themes of natural beauty and allusions to the classical Chinese poets, he is often described by American critics as the Walt Whitman of Chinese poets. Now widely translated, he lives in New York City, still hoping to “write my poems in the sky so that everyone can read them.”

Represented in this collection are younger writers also associated with exile due to their involvement in the democracy movement and the 1989 student protests. Wang Dan was one of the most visible of the student leaders in those protests having organized “democracy salons” at Beijing University.  He ended up on the “most wanted” list and immediately went into hiding after the military crackdown on the student protests. He was discovered and arrested in 1991 and released on parole in 1993, rearrested in 1996 and sentenced to eleven years in prison. Due to ill health he was allowed to come to the U.S. for medical treatment in 1998. He earned his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 2008 and remains banned from re-entering China. His experimental poetry reflects the sadness of exile and the sorrow over human rights in China.

Among this younger group of poets impacted by the Tiananmen incident is Liao Yiwu, whose socially critical poetry got him arrested in 1990 and sentenced to four years in prison. Impoverished and abandoned after his release he became an exile in his own country. Liao’s interviews of people whom he encountered during his street life became a best seller in China. Self-identified as a “melancholy romantic,” Jiang Pinchao’s own experience in prison has strongly influenced his politically expressive poetry in a style more realist than symbolic.

Several poets in this collection are from Shanghai, and their poems reflect nostalgia for that city. One is Li Li, now residing in Sweden, where he continues publishing experimental poetry.  Yang Xiaobin, who has avoided exile, writes in English and Chinese. A poet and literary theorist, he has contributed to scholarship on the Chinese postmodern and avant-garde. His poetry reflects a nomadic life style, where cultural identity is shaped by place and circumstance.

All of the poets represented in this anthology provide an insight into the resiliency of the human spirit and the courage required to maintain artistic integrity in the face of censorship and violent repression. They represent the power of creative expression to overcome the most crushing obstacles and the determination to make our world a better place. We are blessed by their presence and poetry.



序二:流亡者的声音必将归来

凌沧洲

如果若干年后,我们的儿孙回望这近20年来的中文诗歌,必将看到一个奇怪的现象:一方面大地上生灵暗泣、草木含腥、自由沉沦,人民需要诗人用竖琴抚慰他们的心灵;一方面官控的媒体上谀词连篇,脂粉扑簌,弄臣与小丑们身姿绰约,文化叫床与诗歌叫春不绝于耳,竟至于高吟"坟前看奥运,纵做鬼,也幸福",是为千年诗国斯文扫地、尊严无存的又一明证。

"有诗人的人民是有福的人民,在艰难岁月不至寂寞前行。"(波兰流亡诗人、诺贝尔奖得主米沃什),那么,放眼中文诗界,这抚慰人民寂寞的诗人在哪里?答曰:在民间和海外,在放逐和流亡的心灵里。

纵观一部中国诗歌史,从《诗经》、屈原到当代,好诗从来不在宫廷,不在庙堂,而在那遭受不幸和苦难的高贵心灵中,在祖国的异乡人中,在流亡的海外游子中;放眼近一世纪的世界诗歌史,从蒲宁到佩斯、聂鲁达、索尔仁尼琴、布罗茨基、米沃什等人,流亡者们都为人类精神生活奉献了许多不朽佳作。

品超主编的这本《流亡诗集》,选题切入点极佳,敏锐地发掘到了中文诗界这块需要开垦的处女地。

这是泉眼,流淌的是祖国的异乡人与海外游子追求自由的热泪;这是竖琴,弹奏的是放逐者、流亡者历经苦难沧桑不向命运屈服的心声。

必须指出的是:无论这本诗集的作者写作风格如何、表现手段如何,他们大多是"六四"一代人,经历了20年前那场伟大的自由民主运动的洗礼,大多参与或经历了20年前热血青年追求自由民主的壮举。20年来,无论岁月流逝,风尘扑面,自由的信念之火都不曾熄灭。

今天,这些热爱自由的诗人们再次云集在《流亡诗集》,展示自由的心灵决不会为专制谎言所蒙蔽,也不会为极权暴力所征服。因为有了这些诗人的作品存在,20年中文诗歌的历史不再苍白与虚无;因为有了这些诗人的作品存在,后代子孙们才不会对这一时期的诗歌史投来鄙夷的目光。

十多年前,我在北京一些高校作文学讲座,曾给大学生们讲解诺贝尔文学奖得主阿斯图里亚斯的《总统先生》片段:

"那些为祖国谋求利益的斗士都在远离我们的地方,有的流落他乡,乞讨度日,有的早在公共墓穴中化为腐臭的泥土。早晚有一天,大街小巷都会惊恐万状地自行封闭,空气将污浊不堪,虫灾接着瘟疫,瘟疫接着虫灾,然后是一场毁灭一切的大地震。这一切我都用眼睛看到了,就因为我们是一个不容于上天的民族!……睁开眼睛看看吧,自由在哪里?"

时至2009年,我不会像阿斯图里亚斯那样悲观,尽管我们民族也经历了非典瘟疫、四川地震,但是,公民们的觉醒,互联网对信息封锁的突破,正给中国的自由、民主事业带来前所未有的机遇。

那些为祖国谋求利益的斗士不仅海外有,国内也大有人在,不仅用行动,也用诗歌等文学作品在推动中国的人权、自由、民主。

普世价值正如滔滔江水,而专制愚昧的堤坝阻挡是徒劳无益的,最多只能给既得利益者们赢得点继续腐败贪婪和苟延残喘的时间而已。

"自由,就是人们忘记暴君姓名如何拼写的时候。"(布罗茨基)

自由,就是这本流亡诗集能在祖国大陆公开出版发行的时候。

当专制的残冬褪尽,自由民主春回大地的时候,流亡者们当踏上母亲的土地,在故国"小楼一夜听春雨",你们的声音也必将在祖国传媒上和文学史上归来!


2009年1月22日,写于北京


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